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Download printable version When you use the words or original ideas of another person in your writing, you need to document, or give credit to, the sources of those words or ideas.
If you use exact words from the original, quotation marks are necessary. If you paraphrase or restate the idea in your own words, don't use quotation marks, but document the source. In the APA American Psychological Association format, one of several documentation formats, you briefly identify your sources in the text of your paper, then give the full information in the Reference List at the end of the paper.
Identify Sources in the Text Cite the author's last name in the text of your paper. This is called a signal phrase. Then, in parentheses, include the publication date and any other information required.
If you don't name an author in your text, give the author's name and date in parentheses at the end of the sentence, along with other required information. See the examples below. If you refer to the entire contents of a reference and mention the author: According to Larsonthere is a trend toward waiting to marry and toward postponing the birth of the first child.
If you do not mention the author in the text, include it at the end of the sentence, separated from the publication date by a comma: Child support payments can be withheld from wages in more and more states Schorr, If you want to refer to a web address: If you refer to a specific portion of a reference, include the page or chapter number at the end: Fredersen notes that "natural fathers aren't the only ones raising children on their own.
As more families split up, social workers note that stepfathers increasingly are being called on to bring up other people's kids" p.
At the turn of the century many men worked long hours, which entailed their absence from the family for most of the day: If you refer to publications with no author given, include the first key words from the title instead of a name.
If no date is supplied, then type n. Some digital full-text sources do not have page numbers. In these cases, page numbers may be omitted from the in-text citation, but a paragraph number may be used instead: If you refer to a source that is cited in another secondary source, name the original source in your signal phrase.
Include the secondary source in your list of references and refer to it in parenthesis in your text:Generate a Bibliography, In-Text Citations or Other Elements in APA Style! APA is known as the American Psychological Association. But students all around the world know this abbreviation as a separate academic referencing style.
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In-text citation examples shown are for paraphrases and summaries (Author-Date pattern).When citing a direct quote, you will also need to include either a page number or paragraph number (Author-Date-# pattern).Visit the In-Text Citations tab to the left for more information!.
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Used by students and professionals. APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.