A systematic, step-by-step problem-solving strategy, guaranteed to provide a solution Heuristic A rule of thumb that allows one to make judgments that are quick but often in error A short cut that can be prone to errors. Narrows your problem space We use heuristics when making decisions Who would you trust to baby-sit your child? Your answer is based on your heuristic of their appearances. Availability Heuristic Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in our memory.
Universities Constructivism is an epistemology, or a theory, used to explain how people know what they know. The basic idea is that problem solving is at the heart of learning, thinking, and development. As people solve problems and discover the consequences of their actions—through reflecting on past and immediate experiences—they construct their own understanding.
Learning is thus an active process that requires a change in the learner. This is achieved through the activities the learner engages in, including the consequences of those activities, and through reflection. People only deeply understand what they have constructed.
A constructivist approach to learning and instruction has been proposed as an alternative to the objectivist model, which is implicit in all behaviorist and some cognitive approaches to education.
Objectivism sees knowledge as a passive reflection of the external, objective reality. This implies a process of "instruction," ensuring that the learner gets correct information.
History of Constructivism The psychological roots of constructivism began with the developmental work of Jean Piaget —who developed a theory the theory of genetic epistemology that analogized the development of the mind to evolutionary biological development and highlighted the adaptive function of cognition.
Piaget proposed four stages in human development: For Piaget, the development of human intellect proceeds through adaptation and organization. Adaptation is a process of assimilation and accommodation, where external events are assimilated into existing understanding, but unfamiliar events, which don't fit with existing knowledge, are accommodated into the mind, thereby changing its organization.
Countless studies have demonstrated—or tried to discredit—Piaget's developmental stages. For example, it has become clear that most adults use formal operations in only a few domains where they have expertise.
Nonetheless, Piaget's hypothesis that learning is a transformative rather than a cumulative process is still central.
Children do not learn a bit at a time about some issue until it finally comes together as understanding. Instead, they make sense of whatever they know from the very beginning.
This understanding is progressively reformed as new knowledge is acquired, especially new knowledge that is incompatible with their previous understanding. This transformative view of learning has been greatly extended by neo-Piagetian research. The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky's — relevance to constructivism derives from his theories about language, thought, and their mediation by society.
Vygotsky held the position that the child gradually internalizes external and social activities, including communication, with more competent others. Although social speech is internalized in adulthood it becomes thinkingVygotsky contended that it still preserves its intrinsic collaborative character.
In his experiments, Vygotsky studied the difference between the child's reasoning when working independently versus reasoning when working with a more competent person. He devised the notion of the zone of proximal development to reflect on the potential of this difference.
Vygotsky's findings suggested that learning environments should involve guided interactions that permit children to reflect on inconsistency and to change their conceptions through communication.
Vygotsky's work has since been extended in the situated approach to learning. Vygotsky and Piaget's theories are often contrasted to each other in terms of individual cognitive constructivism Piaget and social constructivism Vygotsky. Some researchers have tried to develop a synthesis of these approaches, though some, such as Michael Cole and James Wertsch, argue that the individual versus social orientation debate is over-emphasized.
To them, the real difference rests on the contrast between the roles of cultural artifacts. For Vygotsky, such artifacts play a central role, but they do not appear in Piaget's theories. For the American philosopher and educator John Dewey —education depended on action—knowledge and ideas emerge only from a situation in which learners have to draw out experiences that have meaning and importance to them.
Dewey argued that human thought is practical problem solving, which proceeds by testing rival hypotheses. These problem-solving experiences occur in a social context, such as a classroom, where students join together in manipulating materials and observing outcomes.
Dewey invented the method of progressive education in North America. In summary, Piaget contributed the idea of transformation in learning and development; Vygotsky contributed the idea that learning and development were integrally tied to communicative interactions with others; and Dewey contributed the idea that schools had to bring real world problems into the school curriculum.Allowing students room to think deeply and discuss openly during critical thinking activities is the key to them taking true responsibility for the learning.
Through these kinds of activities we foster real thinkers and life-long learners. FUN Critical Thinking Activities For Students in Any Subject FUN Critical Thinking Activities Increase critical thinking through authentic instruction; This activity is to be facilitated by the teacher and is for the groups collaborating as much as it is the main student who is guessing the word.
Preoperational thought is, however, characterized as subjective and illogical. The subse- and into adulthood. Piaget assessed formal thought, using scientiﬁc or mathematical problems, regarding thought to only logical modes of thinking omits a great deal of human experience.
As a consequence. Observational Activity: Preoperational and Concrete Operational Thinking Critical Thinking Activity: Preoperational Thought in Adulthood 1. Although young children are capable of symbolic thought, they usually cannot perform logical operations; that is, they cannot use ideas and symbols to develop logical princi-ples about their experiences.
Critical Controversy: Genes or Superparents? (p. ) Judith Harris () lasts through adulthood. abstract and idealistic thought. hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
Evaluating Piaget’s Theory. You should take this activity very seriously, or it might become a 5 paragraph essay writing assignment.
Editor’s note: This is an updated version of our article on critical thinking exercises that really stretch your learners’ abilities, with even more activities added.
Real critical thinking exercises seek truth. It takes daring and independent thought to stray from conventional thinking and .