While other motives did exist, such as to colonize, to search for new markets and materials, to attain revenge and world prestige, to convert natives to Christianity, and to spread the English style of orderly government, the main motives evident in many events of the period showed attempts to safeguard the country and protect former land holdings.
Substantial majorities were achieved, and according to contemporary documents this was assisted by bribery in the form of the awarding of peerages and honours to opponents to gain their votes.
Ireland thus became an integral part of the United Kingdom, sending around MPs to the House of Commons at Westminster and 28 representative peers to the House of Lords, elected from among their number by the Irish peers themselves, except that Roman Catholic peers were not permitted to take their seats in the Lords.
Part of the trade-off for the Irish Catholics was to be the granting of Catholic Emancipationwhich had been fiercely resisted by the all-Anglican Irish Parliament.
The Roman Catholic hierarchy had endorsed the Union. However the decision to block Catholic Emancipation fatally undermined the appeal of the Union. The United Kingdom in the Napoleonic Wars During the War of the Second Coalition —Britain occupied most of the French and Dutch colonies the Netherlands had been a satellite of France sincebut tropical diseases claimed the lives of over 40, troops.
When the Treaty of Amiens created a pause, Britain was forced to return most of the colonies. In Maywar was declared again. This policy aimed to weaken the British export economy closing French-controlled territory to its trade. Napoleon hoped that isolating Britain from the Continent would end its economic dominance.
It never succeeded in its objective. Britain possessed the greatest industrial capacity in Europe, and its mastery of the seas allowed it to build up considerable economic strength through trade to its possessions from its rapidly expanding new Empire.
The Spanish uprising in at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent. The Duke of Wellington and his army of British and Portuguese gradually pushed the French out of Spain and in earlyas Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians, Austrians, and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France.
In terms of soldiers the French numerical advantage was offset by British subsidies that paid for a large proportion of the Austrian and Russian soldiers, peaking at aboutin The system of smuggling finished products into the continent undermined French efforts to ruin the British economy by cutting off markets.
It was willingly supported by hundreds of thousands of investors and tax payers, despite the higher taxes on land and a new income tax.
It forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France, and installed the Continental System in Europe. All connections were to be cut, even the mail. British merchants smuggled in many goods and the Continental System was not a powerful weapon of economic war.
Even more damage was done to the economies of France and its allies, which lost a useful trading partner. The "second war of independence" for the American, it was little noticed in Britain, where all attention was focused on the struggle with France.
The British could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in American frigates also inflicted a series of embarrassing defeats on the British navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe.
A stepped-up war effort that year brought about some successes such as the burning of Washington, but many influential voices such as the Duke of Wellington argued that an outright victory over the US was impossible. Ratification of the Treaty of Ghent ended the war in February The major result was the permanent defeat of the Indian allies the British had counted upon.
The US-Canada border was demilitarised by both countries, and peaceful trade resumed, although worries of an American conquest of Canada persisted into the s.
As industrialisation progressed, Britain was more urban and less rural, and power shifted accordingly. Tories feared the possible emergence of radicals who might be conspiring to emulate the dreaded French Revolution.
In reality the violent radical element was small and weak; there were a handful of small conspiracies involving men with few followers and careless security; they were quickly suppressed. In reaction to the Peterloo massacre ofthe Liverpool government passed the " Six Acts " in They prohibited drills and military exercises; facilitated warrants for the search for weapons; outlawed public meetings of more than 50 people, including meetings to organize petitions; put heavy penalties on blasphemous and seditious publications; imposing a fourpenny stamp act on many pamphlets to cut down the flow on news and criticism.History essay - how effectively did the Tsar maintain his power in Russia in the years before ?
7 terms History essay - to what extent did the liberal reforms () improve the lives of the British .
GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Thursday, June 17, — to p.m., only Part III B contains one essay question based on the documents. Write your answer to this question in the essay booklet, beginning on page 7. When you have completed . British History in-depth Britain has been shaped by turmoil between its nations, and tension between state and church.
But centuries of conflict would forge the power at the heart of the largest. It was a turbulent century in British history. A brief study of the era of to clearly illustrates why. This was a period of invention, scientific advancement and astrological discoveries, yet it remained filled with supernatural notions, superstition, mythology and plain ignorance.
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Essay on Great Britain This is a free sample essay on Britain: If you choose to travel across half the world, and find yourself in the UK, you truly will be in a land of paradox.