His father, Krishna Dhun Ghose, was then Assistant Surgeon of Rangpur in Bengal, and a former member of the Brahmo Samaj religious reform movement who had become enamoured with the then-new idea of evolution while pursuing medical studies in Edinburgh. Aurobindo had two elder siblings, Benoybhusan and Manmohana younger sister, Sarojini, and a younger brother, Barindrakumar also referred to as Barin.
Human nature[ edit ] While Confucius himself did not explicitly focus on the subject of human nature, Mencius asserted the innate goodness of the individual, believing that it was society's influence — its lack of a positive cultivating influence — that caused bad moral character.
The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of humanity; the feeling of shame and dislike is the beginning of righteousness; the feeling of deference and compliance is the beginning of propriety; and the feeling of right or wrong is the beginning of wisdom.
Men have these Four Beginnings just as they have their four limbs. Having these Four Beginnings, but saying that they cannot develop them is to destroy themselves. This is why merely external controls always fail in improving society.
True improvement results from educational cultivation in favorable environments. Likewise, bad environments tend to corrupt the human will. This, however, is not proof of innate evil because a clear thinking person would avoid causing harm to others.
This position of Mencius puts him between Confucians such as Xunzi who thought people were innately bad, and Taoists who believed humans did not need cultivation, they just needed to accept their innate, natural, and effortless goodness.
In this way Mencius synthesized integral parts of Taoism into Confucianism. Individual effort was needed to cultivate oneself, but one's natural tendencies were good to begin with.
The object of education is the cultivation of benevolence, otherwise known as Ren. Education[ edit ] According to Mencius, education must awaken the innate abilities of the human mind. One should check for internal consistency by comparing sections and debate the probability of factual accounts by comparing them with experience.
What is destined cannot be contrived by the human intellect or foreseen. Destiny is shown when a path arises that is both unforeseen and constructive.
Destiny should not be confused with Fate. Mencius denied that Heaven would protect a person regardless of his actions, saying, "One who understands Destiny will not stand beneath a tottering wall".
The proper path is one which is natural and unforced. This path must also be maintained because, "Unused pathways are covered with weeds.
One who rebels against Destiny will die before his time. Views on politics and economics[ edit ] Mencius emphasized the significance of the common citizens in the state.
While Confucianism generally regards rulers highly, he argued that it is acceptable for the subjects to overthrow or even kill a ruler who ignores the people's needs and rules harshly.
This is because a ruler who does not rule justly is no longer a true ruler. Speaking of the overthrow of the wicked King Zhou of ShangMencius said, "I have merely heard of killing a villain Zhou, but I have not heard of murdering [him as] the ruler.
Confucianism requires a clarification of what may be reasonably expected in any given relationship. All relationships should be beneficial, but each has its own principle or inner logic. A Ruler must justify his position by acting benevolently before he can expect reciprocation from the people.
In this view, a King is like a steward. Although Confucius admired Kings of great accomplishment, Mencius is clarifying the proper hierarchy of human society. Although a King has presumably higher status than a commoner, he is actually subordinate to the masses of people and the resources of society.
Otherwise, there would be an implied disregard of the potential of human society heading into the future. One is significant only for what one gives, not for what one takes. Mencius distinguished between superior men who recognize and follow the virtues of righteousness and benevolence and inferior men who do not.
He suggested that superior men considered only righteousness, not benefits. That assumes "permanent property" to uphold common morality.
This put him at odds with Mencius. Later, the thinker Zhu Xi declared the views of Xun Zi to be unorthodox, instead supporting the position of Mencius. Plato[ edit ] Mencius's argument that unjust rulers may be overthrown is reminiscent of Socrates 's argument in Book I of Plato's Republic.
A Yuan Dynasty turtle with a stele honoring Mencius Mencius's interpretation of Confucianism has generally been considered the orthodox version by subsequent Chinese philosophers, especially by the Neo-Confucians of the Song dynasty.
Mencius's disciples included a large number of feudal lords, and he is said to have been more influential than Confucius had been. In contrast to the sayings of Confucius, which are short and self-contained, the Mencius consists of long dialogues, including arguments, with extensive prose.
It was generally neglected by the Jesuit missionaries who first translated the Confucian canon into Latin and other European languages, as they felt that the Neo-Confucian school largely consisted of Buddhist and Taoist contamination of Confucianism.
Matteo Ricci also particularly disliked Mencius's strong condemnation of celibacy as unfilial. In book purporting to estimate the hundred most influential persons in history to that point, Mencius is ranked at Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student.
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The Destiny Of The Body/The Vision and the Realisation in Sri Aurobindo's Yoga [Jugal Kishore Mukherjee] on vetconnexx.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book deals with one of the most challenging themes man has ever faced: the evolutionary destiny of the human body.
Though apparently a marvellous product of biological evolution. Essays on Yoga; Death Dying and Beyond (a book) Veda of the Body (a book) The Integral Yoga of Sri Aurobindo. The yoga of Sri Aurobindo, also known widely as the Integral Yoga, is a yoga of Earth transformation.
it immensely helps to spend some time in reading the vast and luminous writings of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother and to . Conversations based on the Mother's essays on education and three small books by Sri Aurobindo: Elements of Yoga, Bases of Yoga and The Mother.
pp. 7 . The next year, after Sri Aurobindo’s passing, the rest of the poem was brought out in a second volume. In the second edition (), Sri Aurobindo’s letters on Savitri were added. They are omitted from the present edition . BIRTH AND BOYHOOD.
On Thursday, the 8th. of September, , in the early hours of the morning, when the star Bharani was in the ascendant was born a boy-child in the village of Pattamadai on the bank of the river Tamraparani in South India.