Normal lung tissue is made up of cells that are programmed by genes to create lung tissue in a certain shape and to perform certain functions. Lung cancer develops when the genetic material responsible for production of lung cells is damaged genetic mutations. Repeated exposure to carcinogens such as tobacco smoke may cause damage in lung cells. While tobacco, is the leading cause of lung cancer, some other carcinogens linked to lung cancer include radon and asbestos.
Jesse Steinfeld had raised concerns about this topic, leading to its inclusion in that report. For carbon monoxide CO specifically, levels in enclosed spaces could exceed levels then permitted in outdoor air.
The possibility that CO emitted from cigarettes could harm persons with chronic heart or lung disease was also mentioned. The report covered exposures and potential health consequences of involuntary smoking, and the researchers concluded that smoking on buses and airplanes was annoying to nonsmokers and that involuntary smoking had potentially adverse consequences for persons with heart and lung diseases.
Two studies on nicotine concentrations in nonsmokers raised concerns about nicotine as a contributing factor to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in nonsmokers.
The chapter concluded with recommendations for research including epidemiologic and clinical studies. That chapter commented on the methodologic difficulties inherent in such studies, including exposure assessment, the lengthy interval during which exposures are likely to be relevant, and accounting for exposures to other carcinogens.
Involuntary smoking was also reviewed in the report, which focused on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking USDHHS Chapter 7 Passive Smoking of that report included a comprehensive review of the mounting information on smoking by parents and the effects on respiratory health of their children, data on irritation of the eye, and the more limited evidence on pulmonary effects of involuntary smoking on adults.
The chapter began with a compilation of measurements of tobacco smoke components in various indoor environments. The extent of the data had increased substantially since Bythe data included measurements of more specific indicators such as acrolein and nicotine, and less specific indicators such as particulate matter PMnitrogen Lung cancer research paper introduction, and CO.
The report reviewed new evidence on exposures of nonsmokers using bio-markers, with substantial information on levels of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite. The report anticipated future conclusions with regard to respiratory effects of parental smoking on child respiratory health Table 1.
In its pages, the report covered the full breadth of the topic, addressing toxicology and dosimetry of tobacco smoke; the relevant evidence on active smoking; patterns of exposure of nonsmokers to tobacco smoke; the epidemiologic evidence on involuntary smoking and disease risks for infants, children, and adults; and policies to control involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke.
That report concluded that involuntary smoking caused lung cancer in lifetime nonsmoking adults and was associated with adverse effects on respiratory health in children. The report also stated that simply separating smokers and nonsmokers within the same airspace reduced but did not eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke.
All of these findings are relevant to public health and public policy Table 1. The lung cancer conclusion was based on extensive information already available on the carcinogenicity of active smoking, the qualitative similarities between secondhand and mainstream smoke, the uptake of tobacco smoke components by nonsmokers, and the epidemiologic data on involuntary smoking.
The three major conclusions of the report Table 1. In its monograph on tobacco smoking, the agency supported this conclusion on the basis of the characteristics of sidestream and mainstream smoke, the absorption of tobacco smoke materials during an involuntary exposure, and the nature of dose-response relationships for carcinogenesis.
In reaching this conclusion, the NRC report cited the biologic plausibility of the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer and the supporting epidemiologic evidence. On the basis of a pooled analysis of the epidemiologic data adjusted for bias, the report concluded that the best estimate for the excess risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers married to smokers was 25 percent, compared with nonsmokers married to nonsmokers.
With regard to the effects of involuntary smoking on children, the NRC report commented on the literature linking secondhand smoke exposures from parental smoking to increased risks for respiratory symptoms and infections and to a slightly diminished rate of lung growth.
Sincethe conclusions with regard to both the carcinogenicity of secondhand smoke and the adverse effects of parental smoking on the health of children have been echoed and expanded Table 1. Inthe U. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the 31 epidemiologic studies of secondhand smoke and lung cancer published up to that time was central to the decision to classify secondhand smoke as a group A carcinogen—namely, a known human carcinogen.
Estimates of approximately 3, U. The report also covered other respiratory health effects in children and adults and concluded that involuntary smoking is causally associated with several adverse respiratory effects in children.
There was also a quantitative risk assessment for the impact of involuntary smoking on childhood asthma and lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Surgeon General, addressing adverse effects from exposure to tobacco smoke In the decade since the EPA report, scientific panels continued to evaluate the mounting evidence linking involuntary smoking to adverse health effects Table 1.
The epidemiologic evidence on involuntary smoking has markedly expanded sinceas have the data on exposure to tobacco smoke in the many environments where people spend time. An understanding of the mechanisms by which involuntary smoking causes disease has also deepened.
The agency estimated the annual excess deaths in the United States that are attributable to secondhand smoke exposure for specific disorders: Estimated annual excess deaths for the total U.
The agency also estimated that between 24, and 71, low birth weight or pre-term deliveries, aboutepisodes of childhood asthma new cases and exacerbationsbetweenandcases of lower respiratory illness in children, and aboutcases of middle ear infections in children occur each year in the United States as a result of exposure to secondhand smoke.Free essay on Lung Cancer Research Paper available totally free at vetconnexx.com, the largest free essay community.
Research @ URMC Blog Lung Cancer: Introduction What is cancer? Cancer is when cells in the body change and grow out of control.
Your body is made up of tiny building blocks called cells.
Lung cancer, like all cancers, can act differently in each person, depending on the kind of lung cancer it is and the stage it is in. But when lung. Researchers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel mutations in a well-known cancer-causing pathway in lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of lung cancer.
Lung-MAP Launches: First Precision Medicine Trial From National Clinical Trials Network. Writing a Research Paper. 41 5. Writing a Review. 83 6. Laboratory Report 1. Process Paper 7.
Introduction to Research; Brainstorming Tips; Exposure to asbestos materials also increases a person’s chances to get lung cancer. Also, genetics and past lung illnesses can lead to the development of this type of cancer.
The cure for lung. Lung Cancer is an international publication covering the clinical, translational and basic science of malignancies of the lung and chest vetconnexx.comal research articles, early reports, review articles, editorials and correspondence covering the prevention, epidemiology and etiology, basic biology.
Lung cancers are generally divided into two types: Non-small cell lung cancer is much more common than small cell lung cancer; Small cell lung cancer, sometimes called oat cell cancer because the cancer cells may look like oats when viewed under a microscope, grows rapidly and quickly spreads to .