We have recently reported that pretreatment with electroacupuncture EA at stomach meridian point 36 St36 prevents the chronic cold-stress increase in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis HPAan action that may be under central control. Given that treatment for stress-related symptoms usually begins after onset of the stress responses, the objectives of the present study were to determine the efficacy of EA St36 on HPA hormones when EA St36 is given after stress was initiated, if the results are long lasting, and if blocking the glucocorticoid receptor GR using RU had the same effects as EA St Adult male rats were placed in 4 groups of animals, 3 of which were exposed to cold and 1 of which was a nontreatment control group. After exposure to the cold stress, 2 groups were treated with either EA St36 or sham-EA, repeated over 10 days.
Effects Biological impact Intense psychological stress caused by unwanted, troublesome memories can cause brain structures such as the amygdala, hippocampus and frontal cortex to become activated, as they process the memory.
Related to this, there is some neuroimaging fMRI evidence that those who are susceptible to PTSD have a hippocampus with a reduced size. These children suffer academically and socially due to symptoms like fragmentation of memoryintrusive thoughts, dissociation and flashbacks, all of which may be related to hippocampal dysfunction.
Physical aggression, conflicts and moodiness cause dysfunction in relationships with families, spouse, children and significant others. Depressionsevere anxiety and fear commonly stem from traumatic memories. These memories become consolidatedstable, and enduring long-term memories LTMs through the synthesis of proteins only a few hours after the initial experience.
The release of the neurotransmitter Norepinephrine Noradrenaline plays a large role in consolidation of traumatic memory. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors during arousal and stress strengthens memory consolidation. Increased release of Norepinephrine inhibits the prefrontal cortexwhich plays a role in emotion control as well as extinction or suppression of memory.
Additionally, the release also serves to stimulate the amygdala which plays a key role in generating fear behaviors.
Reconsolidation after retrieval can be used to strengthen existing memories and update or integrate new information. This allows a memory to be dynamic and plastic in nature.
Just like in consolidation of memory, reconsolidation, involves the synthesis of proteins. Inhibition of this protein synthesis directly before or after retrieval of a traumatic memory can disrupt expression of that memory. This is done by reactivating a memory so that it causes the process of reconsolidation to begin.
One source described the process this way: The administration of several different types of protein synthesis antagonists can be used to block protein synthesis that occurs after a traumatic memory is reactivated.
The inhibition of creation of new proteins will stop the reconsolidation process and make the memory imperfect. Molecular Consolidation theory says that memory is created and solidified or consolidated by specific chemical reactions in the brain. Initially, memories exist in a plastic, labile state before they are more solidly encoded.
It has been argued that memory consolidation occurs more than once- each time a memory is recalled, it returns to a labile state. It states that things which cause memory loss after initial learning can also lead to memory loss after reactivation or retrieval  and it is by applying a pharmacological intervention at this plastic point whereby a traumatic memory can be erased.
The importance of the amygdala Human brain in the coronal orientation. Amygdalae are shown in dark red.
The amygdala is an important brain structure when it comes to learning fearful responses, in other words, it influences how people remember traumatic things. An increase in blood flow to this area has been shown when people look at scary faces, or remember traumatic events. It is likely that the amygdala is necessary for the memory enhancing effects of glucocorticoids and epinephrine.
Anisomycin The consolidation of memory requires the synthesis creation of certain proteins in the amygdala.Review Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Protective and Damaging Effects of Stress Mediators. Chronic stress has been directly linked to many disease states, affecting the health of numerous populations (1 – 3).Stress-induced perturbations occur through multiple biochemical and signaling pathways, with major involvement by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs).
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The University of Arizona (UA) is the flagship institution in the State of Arizona and offers graduate programs in more than areas of study. Graduate programs of study are described here in our Graduate Catalog and Program Descriptions.
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